These notes were developed as I was learning how to program in Fortran 90. Matlab is a great scripting language; however, when you need to do a lot of numerical computations, nothing beats Fortran (or C).
Here, I list below code snippets from Matlab and Fortran 90 to illustrate similiarities and differences between the syntax of the two languages.
Comments
Matlab 
Fortran 90 
Uses % 
Uses ! 
Continuation of programming line
Matlab 
Fortran 90 
A = 174.5 * year ...
+ count / 100

A = 174.5 * year &
+ count / 100

If Condition
Matlab 
Fortran 90 
if <condition>
<statements>
elseif <condition>
<statements>
else
<statements>
end

if (<condition>) then
<statements>
else if (<condition>) then
<statements>
else
<statements>
end do

For Loop
Matlab 
Fortran 90 
for i = 1:5
<statements>
end

do i = 1, 5
<statements>
end do

While Loop
Matlab 
Fortran 90 
while (<condition>)
<statement>
end

do while (<condition>)
<statements>
end do

Function
Matlab 
Fortran 90 
function y = foo(x)
<statement>
y = <value>
end

function foo(x)
real :: x
real :: foo
foo = <value>
end function foo

Relational Operators
Matlab 
Fortran 90 
<

<

>

>

<=

<=

>=

>=

==

==

~=

/=

Logical Operators
Matlab 
Fortran 90 
~

.not.



.or.

&&

.and.

==

.eqv.

~=

.neqv.

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